Grades and Minimum Performance Standards

Grading System

The letter grades listed below are assigned in the School of Law. The numerical equivalents in the second column are used to calculate the student's grade point average in law courses. An explanation of the grading scale appears on each student's transcript.

Letter Grade Grade Points
A+4.30
A4.00
A-3.70
B+3.30
B3.00
B-2.70
C+2.30
C2.00
D1.70
F1.30

Grades, except those in seminars, are based primarily on examinations. Grades in seminars are based primarily on individual research as reflected in a paper and an oral report.

Registration on the Pass/Fail Basis

In general, students receive letter grades in law courses. The dean may determine that pass/fail grading is preferable for a course. Courses that will be offered only on the pass/fail basis or for which pass/fail grading is an option will be announced before registration. The School of Law may limit the number of credits that a student can accumulate on a pass/fail basis.

A nonlaw graduate student who enrolls in a law school course offered for a letter grade may register on the pass/fail basis if permitted to do so by his or her graduate adviser.

In designated classes only, a law student may change registration in a class from the pass/fail basis to the letter-grade basis or from the letter-grade basis to the pass/fail basis until the deadline given in the Academic Calendar.

Minimum Performance Standards

A student must receive a final grade of at least D in a course to receive credit for that course. A student must have a grade point average of at least 1.90 on all law courses taken to graduate from the School of Law.

Grades of F are included in the grade point average, but courses in which the student earned an F are not counted toward the number of hours required for a degree.

A student who has received final grades for twenty or fewer semester hours and whose average falls below 1.90 is placed on scholastic probation. A student who fails to maintain a 1.90 average on all law courses taken during any semester while on scholastic probation, is dropped from the School of Law for failure. 

A student who has received final grades for more than twenty semester hours and whose average falls below 1.80 is dropped from the School of Law for failure. A student who has received final grades for more than twenty semester hours and whose average is 1.80 to 1.89 is placed on scholastic probation. A student who fails to maintain a 1.90 average on all law courses taken during any semester while on scholastic probation, is dropped from the School of Law for failure.  

A student who receives a grade of F in a School of Law course is also placed on scholastic probation. Scholastic probation is lifted after one semester in which the student has completed one or more School of Law courses, provided that the student does not receive another F for any School of Law course during that semester. A student who receives two grades of F for School of Law courses in any one semester is dropped for failure. A student who receives a total of three grades of F for School of Law courses during his or her law school career is dropped for failure.

A student who has been dropped for failure after receiving grades for thirty-three or more semester hours will not be readmitted to the School of Law, with this exception: if the student has never been on scholastic probation in the School of Law, he or she may be readmitted on scholastic probation for one long-session semester. A student who has been dropped for failure after receiving grades for fewer than thirty-three semester hours may be admitted as a new student after he or she has remained out of law school for at least twelve months. The Law School Admissions Committee may attach significance to the prior failure. No student who has been dropped for failure from the School of Law will be permitted, prior to readmission, to visit classes.

A student who fails a required course must repeat it until he or she has passed. A student who fails an elective course may, at his or her option, repeat it only once. 

When a student repeats a course, the original and all subsequent grades are included in the student's grade point average.