School of Biological Sciences

The information in parentheses after a course number is the Texas Common Course Numbering (TCCN) designation. Only TCCN designations that are exact semester-hour equivalents of University courses are listed here. Additional TCCN information is given in Appendix A.

Biology: BIO

Lower-Division Courses

BIO 101C, 301C, 401C, 601C. Topics in Biology.

Topics in biology that are especially relevant to current issues and problems in modern society. For each semester hour of credit earned, one lecture hour a week for one semester. Some topics require one additional discussion hour or three or four additional laboratory hours a week. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Prerequisite: Varies with the topic.

Topic 1: The Biology of Being Human. Introductory biology course that covers human evolution, genetics and genomics, behavior, population growth and environmental issues. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences.

BIO 301D. Biology for Business, Law, and Liberal Arts.

Designed for nonscience majors. The scientific method and the social uses of scientific information. Topics include diet and chronic disease, radiation biology, DNA fingerprinting, the biology of learning, conservation of biotic diversity, and the biology of reproduction. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences.

BIO 301E. Problems in Modern Biology.

An introduction to major concepts in biology, with emphasis on topics, such as genetics, that are relevant to current issues in the field. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 301E and 301L may not both be counted; Biology 301E and 301M may not both be counted. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. Prerequisite: Admission to the Plan II Honors Program.

BIO 301G. Genetics in the 21st Century.

Designed for non-science majors. An elementary course in human genetics and its social impact. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301G, 309F, 346. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences, except for the Bachelor of Science in Human Development and Family Sciences.

BIO 301L (TCCN: BIOL 1308). Molecules to Organisms.

Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to the structure and function of organisms from the molecular to the organ system level; an integrated approach to cell and molecular biology, genetics, development, and physiology of organisms. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 301L and 311C may not both be counted; Biology 301L and 311D may not both be counted. Biology 301E and 301L may not both be counted. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences.

BIO 301M (TCCN: BIOL 1309). Ecology, Evolution, and Society.

Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to environmental adaptations, diversity of organisms, species interactions, organization and processes of communities, population growth and limitations, evolution and population genetics, origin of life, and human impact on the environment. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 301M and 311D may not both be counted. Biology 301E and 301M may not both be counted. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences, except for the Bachelor of Science in Human Development and Family Sciences.

BIO 102C, 202C, 302C, 402C. Conference Course.

Supervised study of selected subjects in biology, by individual arrangement with the instructor. Conference course. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Varies with instructor.

BIO 305F. How Plants Sense and Respond to Stimuli.

Designed for nonscience majors. Exploration of the ways plants sense information about their environment and adapt their growth accordingly; similarities between plant and animal sensory physiology. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences.

BIO 206L (TCCN: BIOL 1106, BIOL 1107). Introductory Laboratory Experiments in Biology.

The organizing principles of biology (such as molecular and cellular functions, reproduction, development, homeostatic mechanisms, and organismal physiology and behavior) are used within a comparative and evolutionary framework to train students in modern laboratory techniques, bioinformatics, experimental design, and interpretation of results. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 311C or 311D.

BIO 208L. Field Biology.

Field projects, laboratory exercises, field trips, and computer simulation exercises to acquaint students with the principles and applications of ecology and some of the experimental and descriptive methods of ecological investigations. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 311D.

BIO 309D. The Human Body.

Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to the anatomical systems of the human body, their physiological functions and interrelationships. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 309D and 365R may not both be counted. May not be counted by students with credit for Biology 365S. May not be counted toward a degree in the College of Natural Sciences, except for the Bachelor of Science in Human Development and Family Sciences.

BIO 311C (TCCN: BIOL 1306). Introductory Biology I.

Introduction to biological energy transformation, cell structure and physiology, and gene expression. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 211, 311C. Biology 311C and 212 may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Chemistry 301 or 301H.

BIO 311D (TCCN: BIOL 1307). Introductory Biology II.

Introduction to mechanisms of inheritance, evolution, physiology, and species interactions. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 301L and 311D may not both be counted. Biology 301M and 311D may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 311C with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 315H. Advanced Introduction to Genetics: Honors.

Basic principles of genetics and cell biology. Emphasis on gene structure and regulation; transmission of heritable traits; structure and function of cells; bacterial and viral genetics; and recombinant DNA technology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: A score of 5 on the College Board Advanced Placement Examination in Biology and credit or registration for Chemistry 301 or 301H.

BIO 119S, 219S, 319S, 419S, 519S, 619S, 719S, 819S, 919S. Topics in Biology.

This course is used to record credit the student earns while enrolled at another institution in a program administered by the University's Study Abroad Office. Credit is recorded as assigned by the study abroad adviser in the School of Biological Sciences. University credit is awarded for work in an exchange program; it may be counted as coursework taken in residence. Transfer credit is awarded for work in an affiliated studies program. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary.

Upper-Division Courses

BIO 320. Cell Biology.

Principles of eukaryotic cell structure and function; macromolecules, membranes, organelles, cytoskeleton, signaling, cell division, differentiation, motility, and experimental methodologies. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 320L. Cell Biology Laboratory.

Explores the complex structures and functions of cells through direct observation and experimentation. Subjects may include regulation of gene transcription and translation, protein sorting, organelles and membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell division. Students use a combination of modern molecular biology, biochemistry, and microscopy techniques, with a strong emphasis placed on hypothesis-driven approaches, proper experimental design, and clear scientific writing and presentation. One lecture hour and five laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311; and credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 320.

BIO 321G. Principles of Computational Biology.

Introduces computational methods used in molecular, cellular, organismal, and population biology. Subjects include molecular bioinformatics, modeling and simulation, and network analysis. Three lecture hours and two computer laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H; Statistics and Data Sciences 328M (or Statistics and Scientific Computation 328M); and Mathematics 408C, 408S, or 408R.

BIO 321L. Aquatic Entomology.

The taxonomy of aquatic insects; the use of aquatic insects in biomonitoring. Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 321L, 370C (Topic: Applied Aquatic Entomology), 384K (Topic 13). Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 322. Structure, Physiology, and Reproduction of Seed Plants.

The principles of structure and functioning of higher plants; special attention to the dynamics of growth and development and reproduction. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, Chemistry 302 or 302H, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 122L.

BIO 122L. Structure, Physiology, and Reproduction of Seed Plants Laboratory.

Observation of structure and reproduction in seed plants and employment of experimental techniques that demonstrate physiological processes, especially processes of growth and development. Two laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology 322; and the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 206L, 208L, 226L or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 323L. Laboratory Studies in Cell Biology.

Research exercises involving light/electron microscopy, image processing, autoradiography, chromatography, fractionation, flow cytometry, spectroscopy, diffraction, antibody labeling, cell growth, and kinetics. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311; and credit or registration for Biology 320.

BIO 324. Survey of the Plant Kingdom.

Review of the groups of living and fossil plants, emphasizing their organization, reproduction, and evolution. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 124L.

BIO 124L. Survey of the Plant Kingdom Laboratory.

Demonstration of members of various plant groups, using cultures and prepared materials, to emphasize organization, reproduction, and evolution. Two laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology 324; and the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 206L, 208L, 226L or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 325. Genetics.

Basic principles of Mendelism, molecular genetics, structure and function of genes and chromosomes, populations and evolution. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 325 and 325H may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 311C and 311D with a grade of at least C- in each.

BIO 325H. Genetics: Honors.

Basic principles of genetics and evolution. Emphasis on population genetics and natural selection; structure and function of organ systems; behavioral ecology; and mutational analysis of organismal development. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 325 and 325H may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 315H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 325L. Laboratory Experience in Genetics.

Experimentation and direct observation in fundamental aspects of transmission genetics. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 325T. Human Genetics.

Genomics, cancer genetics, identification and analysis of human disease genes, and monogenic and multifactorial traits in humans. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 226L. General Microbiology Laboratory.

Introduction to microbiology laboratory techniques and experimental demonstration of principles of microbiology. One lecture and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 326M or 326R.

BIO 326M. Introductory Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

Designed primarily for nursing and prepharmacy students. Overview of the structure, function, and genetics of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, with emphasis on the interactions between micro-organisms and the human host. Includes principles of microbial pathogenesis, the host's innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, and antimicrobial chemotherapy and vaccines. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 311C; Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-; Chemistry 301 with a grade of at least C-; and one of the following with a grade of at least C-: Mathematics 408C, 408K, 408N, 408R, Statistics and Scientific Computation 302.

BIO 326R. General Microbiology.

Overview of the major areas of microbiological study, including cell structure and function, genetics, host-microbe interactions, physiology, ecology, diversity, and virology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 325 or 325H, and Chemistry 302 or 302H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 327. General Phycology.

A general survey of the algae and of their biology. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 327 and 388J may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 324, 124L, and 325 or 325H, with a grade of at least C- in each, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 127L.

BIO 327D. Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Genomic and proteomic tools used to understand the causes of human infectious diseases. Covers genome sequencing, community sequencing, proteomics, microarrays, and human polymorphism analysis; and how these technologies have been applied to the study of important human viral diseases. Also includes extensive coverage of the molecular and clinical biology of these diseases. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 327D and 337 (Topic: Emerging Infectious Diseases) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 327E. Epigenetics.

A study of epigenetic modifications, the covalent modifications of DNA or histones that cause changes in gene expression. Particular attention is given to how experience or environmental factors epigenetically modify health or behavior in animals. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 327E and 337 (Topic: Epigenetics) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 327G. Genomics.

Genome structure, organization, and function of model organisms; theory and methodology of genetic and physical mapping; sequencing analysis and annotation; genome duplication and evolution; and ethics for biotechnology and cloning. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 327G and 337 (Topic: Genomics) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 127L. Laboratory in General Phycology.

Survey of various algal groups, including direct observations of their biology, exposure to research techniques, and instruction in culture procedures. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 327; and the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 328. Introductory Plant Physiology.

General principles of the mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolic activities, growth and development of green plants. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Chemistry 302 or 302H.

BIO 328D. Discovery Laboratory in Plant Biology.

Learning methods of experimental design, data gathering, data interpretation, and data presentation, including original experiments relating to questions of current interest in plant physiology. Five laboratory hours a week for one semester. Biology 328D and 337 (Topic: Discovery Laboratory in Plant Biology) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 128L. Laboratory Experiments in Plant Physiology.

Introduction to experimental techniques used in the study of the mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolic activities, growth, and development of green plants. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 328; and the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 328M. Biostatistics.

Introduction to methods of statistical analysis of biological data. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 318M, 328M, Statistics and Scientific Computation 318M, 328M. Prerequisite: Mathematics 408D, 408L, or 408S with a grade of at least C-, and four semester hours of coursework in biology.

BIO 329. Medical Mycology.

A basic introduction to medical mycology and an overview of research involving both the fungal zoopathogen and its host. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 326R with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 129L. Medical Mycology Laboratory.

Basic techniques for the identification and manipulation of fungi of medical importance. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 226L with a grade of at least C-; and credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 329.

BIO 129S, 229S, 329S, 429S, 529S, 629S, 729S, 829S, 929S. Topics in Biology.

This course is used to record credit the student earns while enrolled at another institution in a program administered by the University's Study Abroad Office. Credit is recorded as assigned by the student abroad adviser in the School of Biological Sciences. University credit is awarded for work in an exchange program; it may be counted as coursework taken in residence. Transfer credit is awarded for work in an affiliated studies program. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary.

BIO 330. Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses.

Mechanisms by which viruses replicate and kill or transform cells. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and 326M or 326R with a grade of at least C- in each.

BIO 230L. Virology Laboratory.

Basic experimental techniques applied to selected bacteriophages and animal viruses. Four laboratory hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 226L with a grade of at least C-, and credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 330.

BIO 331L. Laboratory Studies in Molecular Biology.

The methods and principles of molecular biology in a research laboratory context. Students conduct a research project directed by a faculty member. One lecture hour and four and one-half laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 335. Introduction to Biochemical Engineering.

Microorganisms in chemical and biochemical synthesis; genetic manipulation of cells by classical and recombinant DNA techniques. Enzyme technology; design of bioreactors and microbial fermentations; separations of biological products. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 335, Biomedical Engineering 339, Chemical Engineering 339, 379 (Topic: Introduction to Biochemical Engineering). Prerequisite: Biochemistry 339F (or Chemistry 339K) or 369 (or Chemistry 369), and Biology 311C with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 336. Tumor Biology.

Covers core aspects of cancer pathology, treatment, epidemiology, the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, and the molecular genetics underlying the characteristic features of malignant tumors (including metastatic behavior, genomic instability, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis). Strong emphasis on the biochemical functions of cancer-related proteins and enzymes and therapeutic approaches based on our understanding of these proteins. Important experimental approaches that have influenced our current understanding of cancer will also be stressed. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 336 and 391M may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 330 or 360K with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 137, 237, 337, 437. Selected Topics in Biology.

Recent developments and research methods in the biological sciences. For each semester hour of credit earned, one lecture hour a week for one semester. Some topics may require additional hours. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-; additional prerequisites vary with the topic.

Topic 1: Seminar in Human Biology. One lecture hour a week for one semester. Only offered as Biology 137. Prerequisite: Biology 346 with a grade of at least C-.
Topic 2: Research Methods: UTeach. Restricted to students in the UTeach-Natural Sciences program. Students perform independent inquiries and use skills from mathematics and science to solve research problems.
Topic 3: Natural History of Protists. A study of protista, a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms which are either unicellular or phylogenetically closely allied to unicellular organisms. Description of the basic taxonomic and ecological groups, and description of the natural history of the major groups of organisms.
Topic 4: Computational Neuroscience and Neural Networks.

BIO 337J. Computational Biology Laboratory.

Overview of computational biology, with emphasis on nucleic acid sequence analysis and databases. Class projects and self-learning exercises. Two lecture hours and three computer laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and Statistics and Data Sciences 328M (or Statistics and Scientific Computation 328M) with a grade of at least C- in each.

BIO 438L. Animal Communication.

Animal communication from a multidisciplinary perspective, with emphasis on quantitative analysis, sensory processing, and evolution of signals. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester, with computer laboratory hours as required. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 359K or 370 with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 339. Metabolism and Biochemistry of Microorganisms.

A study of the metabolic processes of microorganisms, using a biochemical approach. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 339 and 391R may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 326R with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 339M. Bacterial Behavior and Signaling Mechanisms.

Advanced studies in how bacteria perceive their environment and communicate with each other. Subjects may include chemotaxis and motility, morphogenesis and development, and secretion and virulence. Taught entirely through reading and discussion of original articles. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 326R with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 340L. Biology of Birds.

Anatomy, physiology, classification, and ecology of birds. Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 344. Molecular Biology.

Molecular basis of cellular processes: gene structure and function, DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis, viruses, molecular aspects of immunology and cancer, and recombinant DNA. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 345E. Endocrinology.

Vertebrate endocrinology (primarily mammalian), with a focus on human pathophysiology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 337 (Topic: Endocrinology) and 345E may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 346. Human Biology.

Introduction to human evolution, genetics, sexuality, senescence, and population growth. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301G, 309F, 346. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 446L. Human Microscopic and Gross Anatomy.

Designed for students preparing for biomedical research and the health professions. Focuses on microscopic and gross anatomy of human tissues and organs, with an emphasis on structure function relationships. Subjects include the effects of disease and aging in addition to normal human anatomy. Three lecture hours and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following courses with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H; Chemistry 301; and Mathematics 408C, 408K, 408N, 408R, Statistics and Data Sciences 302 (or Statistics and Scientific Computation 302), or 328M (or Statistics and Scientific Computation 328M).

BIO 347. Biology and Genetics of Immune Disorders.

Immune disorders in mammals, including humans, used as models for examining basic immunological and immunogenetic principles; emphasis on immune disorders of vertebrates. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 448L. Invertebrate Biology.

A study of the diversity and evolution of multicellular invertebrate animals, with emphasis on common themes in animal body construction and function. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 349. Developmental Biology.

Principles of animal development, with emphasis on developmental mechanisms. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 349L. Experiments in Developmental Biology.

An investigation of methods and principles of developmental biology in a laboratory context, with emphasis on animal embryology using molecular techniques and microscopy. One lecture hour and six laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311; and credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 349.

BIO 350M. Plant Molecular Biology.

Fundamentals of plant molecular biology, including structure and expression of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 350M and 388M may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 351. Economic Botany.

An in-depth analysis of the origin of domesticated plant species, the role in nature of plant products, and the ways natural products have been altered through artificial selection. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 352. Reproductive Biology of Flowering Plants.

Pollination biology, breeding systems, reproductive strategies, and fruit and seed dispersal from evolutionary and ecological vantage points. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 353F. Field Entomology.

A field course on insects, with emphasis on field study techniques, visual identification of species, collecting techniques, and curation in the field. Meets five days a week for one hour a day during a summer-session term; additional fieldwork to be arranged, including extended field trips. Biology 337 (Topic: Field Entomology) and 353F may not both be counted. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 453L. Entomology.

Characteristics, importance, and biology of the major groups of insects. Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester, with additional fieldwork hours to be arranged. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 354C. Cell Biology of Human Birth Defects.

Explores the link between basic cell biology, human genetics, and human birth defects using current scientific literature exposing students to critical thinking and the scientific method, as well as the application of these tools to the study of biology. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 337 (Topic: Developing Biology) and Biology 354C may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 349 with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 354L. Ichthyology.

Overview of the evolution, biology, and ecology of fishes, emphasizing freshwater fishes. Three lecture hours and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork a week for one semester, with field trips to be arranged. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 455L. Vertebrate Natural History.

Phylogeny, taxonomy, life histories, habits, and distribution. Two lecture hours and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork a week for one semester, with field trips to be arranged. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 456L. Limnology and Oceanography.

Same as Marine Sciences 440. An introduction to the study of the interactions between aquatic organisms and their environments. Two lecture hours and six laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Chemistry 302 or 302H; and the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 357. Evolutionary Ecology.

Principles of modern ecology, particularly as they relate to natural selection and evolutionary theory. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 359J. Behavioral Ecology.

Advanced topics in behavioral ecology, with detailed consideration of animal communication, altruism, sexual selection, plant-animal interactions. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 359K or 370 with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 359K. Principles of Animal Behavior.

An introduction to the study of animal behavior: descriptive analysis of behavior; physiological basis of behavior; development of behavior; adaptive significance and evolution of behavior; communication and social behavior. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 359R. Animal Sexuality.

The biology of sexuality, including genetics, morphology, physiology, and psychology of sex. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 360K. Immunology.

The basic concepts of humoral and cell-associated immune phenomena. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 326R or 326M.

BIO 160L. Immunology Laboratory.

Current techniques in experimental cellular and humoral immunology. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 360M. Molecular Immunology.

An advanced immunology course with an emphasis on molecular models and medical relevance. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 337 (Topic: Molecular Immunology) and 360M may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 360K with a grade of at least B-.

BIO 361. Human Infectious Diseases.

Etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immunobiology of the major microbial diseases, with emphasis on their prevention. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 326M or 326R with a grade of at least C- in each.

BIO 361L. Clinical Bacteriology Laboratory.

Training in techniques required for independent work in diagnostic and epidemiological bacteriology. Two lecture hours and five laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C- in each: Biology 325 or 325H; 226L; and 326R or 326M.

BIO 361T. Comparative Animal Physiology.

Physiology of organ systems in animal phyla, with special emphasis on physiological adaptations of organisms to their environment. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 463L. Plant Systematics.

Principles of plant classification, phylogeny, and diversity as exemplified by families and species of flowering plants found seasonally in Texas with an emphasis on the local flora. Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester, with additional field trips to be arranged. Biology 262 and 262L, and 463L may not both be counted. Prerequisite: The following with grades of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H; and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 364. Microbial Ecology.

The ability of microbes to adapt to and change their environment. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 326R with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 365S. Human Systems Physiology.

Overview of human physiology, including body fluids, the cardiovascular system, respiration, digestion, metabolism, and endocrinology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. May not be counted by students with credit for Biology 416L. Prerequisite: Biology 311C; Biology 325 or 325H, and Chemistry 301 or 301H with a grade of at least C- in each; and one of the following with a grade of at least C-: Mathematics 408C, 408K, 408N, 408R, or Statistics and Data Sciences 302 (or Statistics and Scientific Computation 302).

BIO 165U. Human Systems Physiology Laboratory.

Using an inquiry-based approach, provides students with an opportunity for hands-on experience in human physiology. Students read primary scientific literature; collect, analyze, and present data; and write detailed reports on laboratory activities. Four laboratory hours a week for one semester. May not be counted by students with credit for Biology 416L. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and credit or registration for Biology 365S.

BIO 366. Microbial Genetics.

Molecular biology of nucleic acids; biosynthesis of macromolecules, transfer of genetic material from cell to cell, recombination, mutagenesis, and regulatory mechanisms. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 366 and 391S may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 326R with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 366R. Molecular Genetics and Medicine.

Implementation of molecular genetics techniques in medicine. Includes application of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for several genetic disorders and infectious diseases. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 367C. Cellular and Molecular Bases of Neural Development.

An introduction to the principles by which the neural tube (brain and spinal cord) forms during embryonic development. Subjects include the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of a three-dimensional neural tube and its division into forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Biology 365N and Biology 367C may not both be counted. Prerequisite: One of the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325, Neuroscience 330, 365R.

BIO 369F. Field Herpetology.

Species identification by sight and sound, and research techniques such as sampling populations, data collection, and analysis. One lecture hour and five laboratory hours a week for one semester, with additional field hours to be arranged. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 369L. Herpetology.

Biology of amphibians and reptiles, including evolution, ecology, behavior, physiology, life history, and identification. Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 370. Evolution.

Introduction to modern evolutionary biology, focusing on the evolution of molecular, developmental, morphological, and behavioral traits. Genetic and ecological bases of evolutionary changes within populations and of evolutionary divergence in animals and plants. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 370 and 385K (Topic 2: Evolution) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 170C, 270C, 370C, 470C. Conference Course.

Supervised study of selected topics in biology, by individual arrangement with the instructor. Conference course. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-; additional prerequisites vary with the topic.

BIO 471. Introduction to Systematics.

Study of diversification of living and fossil organisms, including speciation, biogeography, taxonomy, and phylogeny of genes, species, and higher taxa. The lecture and laboratory include a significant amount of computational molecular phylogenetics. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Biology 458L and 471 may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and 370 with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 471G. Natural History Museum Science.

An introduction to curatorial practices in natural history museums. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester; students also complete a twenty- to thirty-hour curatorial project. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 371L. Experimental Physiology.

Experimental approach to physiological mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. One lecture hour, four laboratory hours, and two hours of computer work a week for one semester. Prerequisite: The following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 325 or 325H, and Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 373. Ecology.

An introduction to ecology, the study of relationships among organisms and between organisms and their environment; adaptations, population, communities, and ecosystems. Includes both plants and animals and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 373L. Ecology Laboratory.

Intensive field ecology. Includes group field experiment and observation, independent projects, and field trips to other vegetation zones. Students complete weekly write-ups of observation and data analysis, reports of independent projects, and an oral presentation on an independent project. Four laboratory hours and two workshop/lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 373; and the following with a grade of at least C-: Biology 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Science 311.

BIO 374. Plant Anatomy with Histological Techniques.

Tissue organization and cellular details of stems, roots, and leaves of seed plants, with emphasis on development and function. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 174L.

BIO 174L. Laboratory in Plant Anatomy and Histological Techniques.

Demonstration of cellular details and tissue systems of plant organs; instruction in the preparation of plant materials for histological examination. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for Biology 374; and the following with a grade of at least C-: 206L, 208L, 226L, or Environmental Sciences 311.

BIO 375. Conservation Biology.

Application of principles of ecology to the preservation of wild plant and animal species and to the preservation, management, and restoration of natural and seminatural ecosystems. Emphasis on scientific, biological aspects of issues such as endangered species protection, preserve design, and forest management. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and Biology 357, 359J, or 373 with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 177, 277, 377. Undergraduate Research.

Laboratory or field research in the various fields of biological science under the supervision of one or more faculty members. Supervised individual research. Up to three semester hours may be counted toward the major requirement for the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in biology. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-, and written consent of instructor.

BIO 478L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy.

Study of vertebrate morphology from developmental anatomy to the function, biomechanics, and phylogenetic relationships of living and fossil taxa. Three lecture hours and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Biology 478L and Kinesiology 324K, 424K may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C-.

BIO 379H, 679H. Honors Tutorial Course.

Original laboratory or field research project under the direction of a faculty mentor, leading to a thesis or research presentation for students in the honors program in biology. The equivalent of three or six lecture hours a week for one semester. May be repeated for credit, but no more than six hours may be counted toward a degree in biology. Prerequisite: Consent of the student's research supervisor and the departmental honors adviser.